iOS Programming: Managing Memory with ARC

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Properties

Each time we’ve added an occurrence variable to BNRItem, we’ve proclaimed and actualized a couple of accessor strategies. Presently we will perceive how to utilize properties. Properties are a helpful other option to working out accessors for example factors – one that spares a considerable measure of writing and makes your class records much clearer to peruse.

Pronouncing properties

A property is pronounced in the interface of a class where strategies are proclaimed. A property statement has the accompanying structure:

@property NSString *itemName;

When you announce a property, you are verifiably proclaiming a setter and a getter for the occasion variable of a similar name. So the above line of code is proportionate to the accompanying:

– (void)setItemName:(NSString *)str;

– (NSString *)itemName;

Every property has an arrangement of properties that portray the conduct of the accessor strategies. The characteristics are proclaimed in enclosures after the @property order. Here is a case:

@property (nonatomic, readwrite, solid) NSString *itemName;

There are three property qualities. Each property has a few choices, one of which is the default and does not need to expressly proclaimed.

The principal trait of a property has two choices: nonatomic or nuclear. This credit needs to do with multi-strung applications and is outside the extent of this book. Most Objective-C developers regularly utilize nonatomic: we do at Big Nerd Ranch, thus does Apple. In this book, we’ll utilize nonatomic for all properties.

We should change BNRItem to utilize properties rather than accessor techniques. In BNRItem.h, supplant the greater part of your accessor techniques with properties that are nonatomic.

– (id)initWithItemName:(NSString *)name

valueInDollars:(int)value

serialNumber:(NSString *)sNumber;

– (void)setItemName:(NSString *)str;

– (NSString *)itemName;

– (void)setSerialNumber:(NSString *)str;

– (NSString *)serialNumber;

– (void)setValueInDollars:(int)i;

– (int)valueInDollars;

– (NSDate *)dateCreated;

– (void)setContainedItem:(BNRItem *)i;

– (BNRItem *)containedItem;

– (void)setContainer:(BNRItem *)i;

– (BNRItem *)container;

@property (nonatomic) BNRItem *containedItem;

@property (nonatomic) BNRItem *container;

@property (nonatomic) NSString *itemName;

@property (nonatomic) NSString *serialNumber;

@property (nonatomic) int valueInDollars;

@property (nonatomic) NSDate *dateCreated;

@end

Sadly, nonatomic isn’t the default choice, so you will dependably need to unequivocally announce your properties to be nonatomic.

The second quality of a property is either readwrite or readonly. A readwrite property proclaims both a setter and getter, and a readonly property just announces a getter. The default alternative for this quality is readwrite. This is the thing that we need for the majority of BNRItem’s properties except for dateCreated, which ought to be readonly. In BNRItem.h, proclaim dateCreated as a readonly property with the goal that no setter strategy is announced for this occasion variable.

@property (nonatomic, readonly) NSDate *dateCreated;

The last quality of a property depict its memory administration. The most widely recognized choices let us know whether the got to occurrence variable has a solid or powerless reference to the question it focuses to. The default alternative is relegate, which is for properties like valueInDollars that don’t point to a question. Whatever is left of BNRItem’s occasion factors are for the most part solid references to objects except for holder, which is powerless. Add the solid credit alternative to the suitable properties and frail to the compartment property.

@property (nonatomic, solid) BNRItem *containedItem;

@property (nonatomic, feeble) BNRItem *container;

@property (nonatomic, solid) NSString *itemName;

@property (nonatomic, solid) NSString *serialNumber;

@property (nonatomic) int valueInDollars;

@property (nonatomic, readonly, solid) NSDate *dateCreated;

Construct and run the application. You should see precisely the same as the last time you ran it. The main contrast is that BNRItem.h is much more clean.

Incorporating properties

Notwithstanding utilizing a property to proclaim accessor techniques, you can incorporate a property to produce the code for the accessor strategies in the usage document. At the present time, BNRItem.m characterizes the accessor techniques pronounced by every property. For instance, the property itemName announces two accessor techniques, itemName and setItemName:, and these are characterized in BNRItem.m like so:

– (void)setItemName:(NSString *)str

{

itemName = str;

}

– (NSString *)itemName

{

return itemName;

}

When you orchestrate a property, you don’t need to sort out the accessor definitions. You can blend a property by utilizing the @synthesize mandate in the execution document. In BNRItem.m, include a combine explanation for itemName and erase the executions of setItemName: and itemName.

@implementation BNRItem

@synthesize itemName;

– (void)setItemName:(NSString *)str

{

itemName = str;

}

– (NSString *)itemName

{

return itemName;

}

You can integrate properties in the same orchestrate proclamation or split them up into different articulations. In BNRItem.m, blend whatever remains of the occasion factors and erase whatever is left of the accessor usage.

@implementation

@synthesize itemName;

@synthesize containedItem, compartment, serialNumber, valueInDollars,

dateCreated;

– (void)setSerialNumber:(NSString *)str

{

serialNumber = str;

}

– (NSString *)serialNumber

{

return serialNumber;

}

– (void)setValueInDollars:(int)i

{

valueInDollars = I;

}

– (int)valueInDollars

{

return valueInDollars;

}

– (NSDate *)dateCreated

{

return dateCreated;

}

– (void)setContainedItem:(BNRItem *)i

{

containedItem = I;

/When given a thing to contain, the contained

/thing will be given a pointer to its compartment

[i setContainer:self];

}

– (BNRItem *)containedItem

{

return containedItem;

}

– (void)setContainer:(BNRItem *)i

{

compartment = I;

}

– (BNRItem *)container

{

return compartment;

}

Normally, incorporated accessors work fine, yet some of the time you require an accessor strategy to do some extra work. This is the situation for setContainedItem:. Here is our unique usage:

– (void)setContainedItem:(BNRItem *)i

{

containedItem = I;

[i setContainer:self];

}

The combined setter wo exclude the second line building up the corresponding connection between the compartment and the containedItem. Its usage just resembles this:

– (void)setContainedItem:(BNRItem *)i

{

containedItem = I;

}

Since we require this setter to do extra work, we can’t depend on the incorporated strategy and must compose the usage ourselves. Luckily, composing our own particular execution does not struggle with blending the property. Any execution we include will supersede the blended adaptation. In BNRItem.m, include back the usage of setContainedItem:.

– (void)setContainedItem:(BNRItem *)i

{

containedItem = I;

[i setContainer:self];

}

Construct and run the application once more. It should work the same as usual, yet your code is much more clean.

Incorporating a property that you pronounced in the header record is discretionary, yet regular. The main reason not to combine a property is if both the getter and the setter strategies have extra conduct you have to actualize.

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